Principles of operation and components of a personal computer

The role of information in the modern world

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A computer is a universal tool for information processing. It can solve almost all your tasks, only three components are needed:

Hardware is a complex of technical devices of a computer.
Software (Software, Software) is a set of programs, where a program is a set of instructions according to which the hardware works, and the purpose of each program is to solve a user’s task.
Knowledge (Brainware). The User (a person who uses a computer […]

Representation of information in the computer

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The unit of information is a byte. A memory cell has a capacity of 1 byte if it can store one character – a letter, a number, a punctuation mark, etc. So, a string of text consisting of 10 letters occupies 10 bytes in memory.

A bit is the minimum unit of information. In practice, units are usually used:

byte (8 bits);

kilobytes (1024 bits);

megabytes (1024 kilobytes);

gigabyte (1024 megabytes).

Information processing in a personal computer (PC) is based on the exchange of electrical […]


of Trace programs. ”

A program is a set of computer instructions, complete and self–sufficient, ensuring the performance of a specific task. Those who produce programs distribute them through a retail network or via the Internet. The program needs to be installed (installed) on the computer so that the user can work with it.

The following groups of programs are distinguished:

System programs. These programs manage all computer resources, check the operability of devices, and ensure the operation of other programs. System programs […]

Personal computer devices

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In the modern world, almost all computers are based on the principles put forward in 1946 by the Hungarian physicist and mathematician John von Neumann.

All devices included in the computer can be divided into the following groups:

Information processing devices.
Transmitting devices.
Input devices.
Output devices.
Network devices.

Information processing devices include the following:

Video card.
Sound card.

That is, such devices in which some kind of information transformation takes place.


The most important element in a computer, its “brain”, is a microprocessor – an electronic circuit that performs all calculations and information processing (Fig. 2). The speed of its operation largely determines the speed of the computer.

At first glance, the processor is just a silicon crystal grown using a special technology.

However, this pebble contains many separate elements – transistors, which together endow the computer with the ability to “think”.

The processor consists of several important parts: the actual processor is a […]

The 5 Best Firefox Extensions for a Web Developer

Since the Firefox browser was born, disputes over which of the browsers is better have not subsided on the Internet. Judging by the site statistics now 80% will prove that Inernet Explorer is the best, 13% – that there is nothing better than Firefox, well, the remaining 7% will praise Opera, Safari and other creations for “comfortable spending time on the Internet.”

And only among web developers – complete silence! Because they know that the best browser is Firefox.

And they […]

Again about steganography – overview of the steghide utility

Solution: Several steganographic utilities available under the GNU GPL license will help solve the problem.

The Debian distribution is simply an encyclopedia of the most diverse and extremely useful data manipulation utilities. And there are just a huge number of data hiding programs in it. Here is one of them – a small, but very sophisticated steghide utility for steganographic embedding of data into drawings or sound files.

Steganography – literally means “secret writing” in Greek. This is the science of the […]

CMS Drupal and its features

What is the first thing we pay attention to and should pay attention to when choosing a CMS engine? Perhaps for the convenience of use. This aspect directly depends on functionality, flexible configuration, content management and much more. Installing CMS on the server, we, of course, gradually begin to understand what and how in these very settings, but after all the same… we delete it without having studied even a small part of the possibilities. This approach is rather wrong, […]

introduction to MINIX 3


How often have you rebooted your TV in the past year? Probably much smaller than your computer. Of course, there are many “reasons” for this, but more and more users who are far from technology do not want to hear about them. They only want their computer to work perfectly all the time and never fail. MINIX 3 is a project to develop an operating system as reliable as a TV for embedded systems and critical applications, as well as […]

analyzing network protocols has become more convenient

home ” software

ProLAN has developed ProMirroring technology, which simplifies the use of any network protocol analyzer in a switched network. The technology is supported by all products of the SLA-ON family, including the free QuTester+ program, and can be effectively used in switched networks based on equipment from Zyxel, 3Com, Allied Telesis, Cisco Systems and others.


Today network protocol analyzers are effectively used by IT departments and information security departments to solve a wide range of tasks. With their help, you […]