Principles of operation and components of a personal computer

The role of information in the modern world

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A computer is a universal tool for information processing. It can solve almost all your tasks, only three components are needed:

Hardware is a complex of technical devices of a computer.
Software (Software, Software) is a set of programs, where a program is a set of instructions according to which the hardware works, and the purpose of each program is to solve a user’s task.
Knowledge (Brainware). The User (a person who uses a computer […]

Representation of information in the computer

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The unit of information is a byte. A memory cell has a capacity of 1 byte if it can store one character – a letter, a number, a punctuation mark, etc. So, a string of text consisting of 10 letters occupies 10 bytes in memory.

A bit is the minimum unit of information. In practice, units are usually used:

byte (8 bits);

kilobytes (1024 bits);

megabytes (1024 kilobytes);

gigabyte (1024 megabytes).

Information processing in a personal computer (PC) is based on the exchange of electrical […]


of Trace programs. ”

A program is a set of computer instructions, complete and self–sufficient, ensuring the performance of a specific task. Those who produce programs distribute them through a retail network or via the Internet. The program needs to be installed (installed) on the computer so that the user can work with it.

The following groups of programs are distinguished:

System programs. These programs manage all computer resources, check the operability of devices, and ensure the operation of other programs. System programs […]

Personal computer devices

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In the modern world, almost all computers are based on the principles put forward in 1946 by the Hungarian physicist and mathematician John von Neumann.

All devices included in the computer can be divided into the following groups:

Information processing devices.
Transmitting devices.
Input devices.
Output devices.
Network devices.

Information processing devices include the following:

Video card.
Sound card.

That is, such devices in which some kind of information transformation takes place.


The most important element in a computer, its “brain”, is a microprocessor – an electronic circuit that performs all calculations and information processing (Fig. 2). The speed of its operation largely determines the speed of the computer.

At first glance, the processor is just a silicon crystal grown using a special technology.

However, this pebble contains many separate elements – transistors, which together endow the computer with the ability to “think”.

The processor consists of several important parts: the actual processor is a […]